The Grower (The Grower Saga Book 1)
The collection is. Further conservation work may be needed as the metal binding of the book is mildly rusted. The Riverside Navel Growers Association began and ended its operations during the s. Two trends marked this period: an increase in the standard of living, and the rise of the consumer culture.
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During this time, there was an increase in spending, often using installment plans. Many Americans lived beyond their means, requiring households to have more than one income. Rising debts went ignored. The Riverside Navel Growers operated in this historical context, and it seems that many of its directors shared this mentality. Webster, and Guss Hagenstein. Stockholders of the association were to be active citrus growers. Apparently, payment was set according to a subscription agreement and a sales contract, whereas the purchaser agreed to pay 10 cents per citrus box sold through the company.
In the Articles of Incorporation, the three Fullerton men are listed as having one share each. This was later modified to shares in January The purpose of the Navel Growers Association was to sell, buy, pack, cure, and market citrus and other fruits and vegetables.
In the Articles of Incorporation, they also listed their intent to act as an agency and representative of the growers, to engage in the trucking of the produce, and to participate in the business of general fumigation of orchards. The cost-effectiveness of frost protection depends on the frequency of occurrence, cost of the protection method and the value of the crop. Generally, passive frost protection is easily justified. The cost-effectiveness of active protection depends on the value of the crop and cost of the method.
In this book, both passive and active methods are discussed, as well as the economics of protection. Frost damage to crops has been a problem for humans since the first crops were cultivated. Even if all aspects of crop production are well managed, one night of freezing temperatures can lead to complete crop loss.
Except for tropical latitudes, where temperatures seldom fall below the melting point, damage due to freezing temperatures is a worldwide problem. Usually, frost damage in subtropical climates is associated with slow moving cold air masses that may bring nights of hours of subzero temperature Bagdonas, Georg and Gerber, In eastern continental locations, damaging events are typically advective, with weak inversions. In western continental and marine climates, frost events with calm conditions and stronger inversions are more typical.
The damaging events typically start with advection of cold air followed by a few nights of radiation frost. In temperate climates, frost periods are shorter in duration and occur more frequently than in other climates Bagdonas, Georg and Gerber, For deciduous fruit and nut trees, damaging frost events occur mainly in the spring, but sometimes in the autumn as well. For subtropical fruits, damage to the crops typically occurs during the winter. In tropical climates, there is normally no freezing except at higher elevations.
Therefore, when tropical crops are damaged by cold, the temperature is usually above zero. In temperate climates, damage to grain crops can also occur before booting, under severe conditions, or to flowers even in mild frosts. For grain farmers, the main response is to plant crops or varieties that are less susceptible to damage e. In any case, the date of planting should be adjusted to the crop, variety and microclimate.
Similarly, if subzero temperatures occur too frequently, subtropical crops are preferentially grown in regions with less occurrence of damage. A good example of this is the movement of the citrus industry further south in Florida in response to several severe frosts during the s and s Attaway, At the same time, due to more favourable temperatures, the olive industry is moving northward in Italy where soil and climate factors allow for production of high quality olive oil. However, this has led to an increase in frost damage to olives during severe winters in , and Rotondi and Magli, Generally speaking, the dates of the last frost occurrence in the spring and the first occurrence in the autumn will determine where particular crops are grown.
For example, many of the deciduous fruit and nut crops tend to be grown in Mediterranean climates because the probability of losing a crop to frost damage is less than in more continental climates. The science of frost protection has mainly developed in response to the occurrence of intermittent damage in relatively favourable climates. If the damage occurs regularly, the best strategy is to grow the crop elsewhere, in a more favourable location. In some cases, cropping locations change in response to climate change. For example, Attaway noted that prior to orange trees were commonly grown in South Carolina, Georgia and northern Florida, where, because of potential losses to frost damage, people today would not consider commercial production of oranges.
He cited several examples of subtropical orchards that had survived up until about , when a severe frost occurred. In fact, there were citations of documents recommending that subtropical fruits be grown in the American southeast to help compete with fruit produced in Mediterranean countries of Europe. With today's climate, subtropical fruit production would not be considered in these areas. Attaway makes the point that his observations are based on grower experience rather than climatology, but fewer damaging frost events must have occurred during the s for farmers to be producing subtropical fruits where none can be economically produced today.
The history of frost damage is more sporadic in the Mediterranean climate of California. There have been some major losses from time to time, but the diversity of crops and timing of the frosts leads to less extensive impacts in California. Recently, California suffered two major damaging events in the citrus industry. One occurred in December and the other in December The frost caused the most damage to citrus production since the and frosts Attaway, Interestingly, some regions had little damage, while others were devastated.
Attaway noted that, although the damage to fruit was immense,. We attribute this to the fact that morning lows in the upper 20s and low 30s [i.
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The December frost was a good example of how hardening can provide protection against frost damage. In Florida, before a cold front passes and drops the air to subzero temperatures, relatively warm temperature often precedes a severe frost. Consequently, the trees are less hardened against frost damage than those exposed to the two California frosts. Interestingly, Attaway emphasized the inconsistent nature of frost damage that was observed following the frost.
For example, within a relatively small region, he noted losses of 70 to 80 percent of the oranges in Ojai Valley, 60 percent to 70 percent losses in Santa Paula Canyon, but only 20 percent losses in the Santa Clara Valley, which is relatively close. This illustrates the site-specific nature of frost damage to crops, especially in hilly and mountainous regions like Ventura County in California.
The December frost was not as bad for California citrus growers as that of ; however, it still is considered one of the major frosts of the twentieth century. The economic losses were high; however, unlike the frost, most growers were able to survive Tiefenbacher, Hagelman and Secora, In their review of the December frost in California's San Joaquin Valley, Tiefenbacher, Hagelman and Secora noted that there was a clear relationship between latitude and damage and latitude and harvesting in anticipation of a frost.
They noted that more northerly orchards suffered more frost damage, but they also harvested considerably earlier than the first frost, which allowed them to survive with less economic loss. They also noted a relationship between longitude and the age and size of orchards, which is also related to elevation. In the San Joaquin Valley, older orchards are located on the east side at higher elevations, with younger orchards to the west at lower elevation in the Valley.
The reviewers recommended that micrometeorological models, combined with digital elevation data and detailed damage information, could help to understand spatial patterns of damage risk. Tiefenbacher, Hagelman and Secora observed that larger operations proportionally lost more crop production, whereas smaller growers and cooperative members lost less.
This was partially attributed to communication between cooperative organizations and the fact that many small growers harvested before the frost. After the frost, many farmers began to purchase catastrophic crop insurance and growers with insurance experienced more damage in This might have occurred because their orchards are more prone to damage or it might be that there was less effort to use protection methods because they had insurance.
The answer is unknown. In addition, Tiefenbacher, Hagelman and Secora noted that government disaster assistance might be influencing frost protection activities by growers. In both and , the government provided disaster funding to help growers recoup their losses. While this disaster relief is helpful to the farmers, it might discourage the use of active protection methods and it might encourage expansion of the industry into areas where the risk of frost damage is higher Tiefenbacher, Hagelman and Secora, Historically, heaters have been used to protect plants from freezing for more than years Powell and Himelrick, Originally, the heaters were mostly open fires; however, in recent history, metal containers for the fire were used to better retain the heat for radiation and convection to the crop.
Powell and Himelrick wrote that about 75 percent of the energy from stack heaters is used to directly heat the air, which then is convected to the crop directly or indirectly by mixing with air within the inversion layer. They attributed the additional 25 percent of energy as transferring from the heater stacks to the plants as direct radiation, which is effective even during advection frost events.
The earliest known metal-container heaters i. He found an oil-burning device for heating that was more efficient than open fires. It later became known as the HY-LO orchard heater, which was produced by the Scheu Manufacturing Company, which today produces portable space heaters. Even before the HY-LO orchard heater, growers used simple metal containers that burned heavy oils or old rubber tyres containing sawdust.
They are amazing! The photos themselves are beautiful and well chosen. I am taking them to the Adelaide Show tomorrow! I will put them somewhere they will be seen to show off your work and us! Dear Al, all I can say is wow, bloody brilliant. Our 2 books arrived over 2 days, Friday and Monday, but you had warned us that it was Australia Post.
The books arrived in excellent order with no damage. These 2 books are wonderful, and will make wonderful gifts for our overseas clients, our company directors, and station managers. Your photography has really captured characters or rural Australia and what happens away from the bright lights of the city.
I am still very happy to help you promote these books in any way I can because it shows the real Australia, and is not focused on our current period of drought across Eastern Australia where unfortunately there are a lot of people suffering some mental health problems and of course some short term financial hardship. The outlook for agriculture in Australia is bloody fantastic and we all need to continue to promote positive stories, and your books are testimonial to this. Thank you again, great effort.
The family have been viewing the books when they call in but will need plenty of time to fully browse through. It was a huge undertaking but you have shown such a diverse picture of Australian country life which will be a pleasure for all of us to read in the coming weeks. The photography is simply outstanding, and soul searching for the reader, and gives a great broad spectrum of individual circumstances of each agricultural land use. These books are helping to keep the profile of Agriculture alive. Currently we have just about everything working against us so it is entirely up to us to put ourselves back in the public eye.
Al Mabin has spent a year of her life producing The Grower which is a huge step in this direction. Use this resource, make sure it is your local schools, libraries and homes. Encourage business to use it for Christmas corporate gifts, stock up with them for event trophies. Her book about freight and transportation throughout Australia is also very educational and well researched. No other country in the world has produced an agricultural photography and info book as extensive as The Grower series.
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We have one put in our laps and it seems it is not going to be utilised unless we all make a decision to buy them now. The cost of one of these books is equivalent to one dinner and a bottle of wine, or one shirt, or a pair of cheap shoes.
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The benefits of spreading this information through the public domain will last for many many years. I leave these thoughts with you all. Alice Mabin has put together an amazing collection of awe inspiring photos depicting the wide diversity of Australian Agriculture and life on the land as it really is. These Books are worth the look and would make an outstanding Personal or Corporate gift. Mine already takes pride of place on the coffee table. We were very impressed with your books the photography is just exceptional and has captured so many facets of agriculture.
The books are simply beautiful. As exciting as it is to be represented in them the greater value is that we are able to learn so much about our country through them.